Note: Ming no longer manufactures the RE-99 receiver & TX-99 transmitter RF components. We will leave this project up for users that may still have the Ming RF components.
If you plan to build this project, simply replace the RE-99 receiver & TX-99 transmitter with the RWS-434 & TWS-434A RF receiver & transmitter modules found HERE. These circuits will work with any RF transmitter and receiver modules.
Due to the huge interest in this project, I have just recently finished the NEW schematics. The older schematics were scanned and pretty poor quality. These new ones should make it considerably easier to recognize the parts used for the project. The Ming RF transmitter and receiver boards used for this project are relatively inexpensive and perform admirably considering the meager price. Using the quarter wave antennas, I have had some excellent results with operating distance as well as overall operation. The Ming modules come ready to plug into your application and only require these simple interface circuits shown here to build your own complete RF remote control system.
This project uses the Ming TX-99 V3.0 300 MHz AM, RF Transmitter module shown below for transmitting data.
The photo above shows the Ming TX-99 V3.0. Once you have the Ming board you're ready to build the interface circuit shown below. The switches SW1-SW4 let you select the logic levels or (data) to send to the receiver. The logic levels present at the Holtek HT-12E encoder pins D0-D3 will be transferred to the receiver. The circuit shown below will transmit continuously if the pin #14 (TE) is left connected to ground. If you want your transmitter to transmit only when you push a button, simply break the circuit ground connection using another switch. By using another switch to break the ground connection, you will save power in your transmitter circuit and only transmit when you push the pushbutton switch that you're using to break the ground power connection.
Here's a quick sample of how to configure a switch to power up the transmitter and enable the transmission:
Using the pushbutton switch to make/break the ground connection for the power circuit to your transmitter, you save power and only transmit data when you push the switch. You can use a standard LM7805 +5 volt regulator, or the smaller version using a 78L05 +5 volt regulator in the T0-92 style package to save space. The 78L05 T0-92 style +5 volt regulator is about the same size as a normal transistor and allows you to build the transmitter circuit small enough to fit into a small handheld plastic enclosure. The power requirements for this circuit are minimal and the 78L05 is more than capable of delivering sufficient current for operation.
Note: If you plan to use (only) a nine volt battery, you can eliminate the filter capacitors C1 & C2. If you use a wall wart type power supply or you build the project on a breadboard, include the capacitors for filtration.
The header marked H1 in the schematic below allows you to simply plug the Ming transmitter module directly into the transmitter circuit. The DOUT pin #17 of the HT-12D sends serial data to the Ming TX-99 module which in turn transmits this serial data to the receiver circuit shown in the receiver schematic later on in this project article.
for the transmitter circuit
Below is a picture of the Ming RE-99 V3.0A RF Receiver used to receive data transmitted by the TX-99 shown at the top of the page.
Once you have the Ming RE-99 V3.0 shown above, you're ready to build the interface circuit shown below. The 3-pin header lets you simply plug the Ming RE-99 receiver board into your receiver circuit shown below. The data outputs of the HT-12D shown below will correspond directly to the logic levels present on the transmitter circuit shown with the HT-12E above. Pin #17 (VT) on the HT-12D is the valid transmit pin. Once a valid transmission has been received from the transmitter, this pin will go to a logic (1) or high turning the transistor and LED on.
Data received from the transmitter section will then be latched on the output pins of the HT-12D. The data outputs of the HT-12D will remain "latched" or in the last valid logic states until another valid reception is received requesting a change of state on the logic outputs.
Note: Ming now has a new version of the RE-99. This new version is the RE-99V3.1A, and it requires a 100K pull-down resistor on the data output pin. If you're using the newer version 3.1A, then use the second schematic below. For the older version 3.0A, use the 1st schematic. The only real difference is the 100K pull-down resistor on the data output pin required by the newer version 3.1A..
The reason for the pull-down resistor is Ming has added a diode to the data output on the receiver. This diode will not allow the data output to go to ground. The 100K pull-down allows the decoder IC to see ground.
Also note that the receiver schematic for version 3.1A has all HT-12D address pins connected to ground. If you connect these all to ground, then be sure to do the same on the HT-12E encoder. The encoder/decoder address must match.
The receiver circuit can control solid state relays or mechanical types. Below is the circuit I use for controlling solid state relays directly from the outputs of the HT-12D circuit shown above. The diodes were added as flyback protection should I ever need to replace one of the solid state relays with a mechanical type. If your application calls for solid state relays only, just eliminate the diodes altogether. Check the data sheet for the relays you intend to use for added safety. When in doubt, use the diodes anyway. Better safe than sorry and diodes are the cheapest part of this circuit anyway.
To attach the driver circuit below, simply connect D0 to the same output of the HT-12D circuit shown in the receiver schematic above. Attach the base of the PNP transistor directly to the data out pin D0 on the HT-12D. VCC will always be present across the relay coil, but ground will be switched by the PNP transistors. When the transistor is off, so is your relay. A logic (0) or ground at the base of the PNP transistor will forward bias the transistor and energize your relay. Simple, yet very effective and within the budget of most hobbyists.
Note: The above is only a sample. You can hook up the relay (contacts) to what ever voltage your load requires. Some applications may require switching an AC load such as lights or even AC motors. Be careful, and make sure the relay you select will handle the current demands required by the load you intend to control. A good rule-of-thumb is to select a relay that is rated at least 20% higher than your intended load. For example, if you have a load that requires 800 mA, select a relay that has a maximum rating of 1 Amp. This way even at full load the relay is only at 80% of its maximum capacity. It's good design practice to have built-in safety factors
Build four of the switching circuits shown above if you want to use all four of the control outputs from the HT-12D. Take note if you use a solid state relay with this circuit, you may need to include a series current limiting resistor from the emitter side of the PNP transistor to avoid overdriving the LED inside the solid state relay.
Using the Ming pre-made RF modules makes building an RF Transmitter & Receiver pretty easy. The Holtek HT-12E and HT-12D Encoder/Decoder IC's handle the data encoding & decoding. With the Ming transmitter & receiver modules, you only need to build the interface circuitry shown here to have a complete RF remote control system.
Note that if you use anything other than 5V on both encoder/decoder circuits (you will need to change these oscillator resistor values). Refer to the tables in the HT12D/HT-12E datasheet.
By using the switches attached to the data pins on the HT-12E, as shown in the schematic, we can select the information in binary format to send to the receiver. The receiver section consists of the Ming RE-99 and the HT-12D decoder IC. The DATA_IN pin-14 of the HT-12D reads the 12-bit binary information sent by the HT-12E and then places this data on its output pins. Pins 10,11,12 and 13 are the data out pins of the HT-12D, D0,D1,D2 and D3.
The HT-12D receives the 12-bit word and interprets the first 8-bits as address and the last 4-bits as data. Pins 1-8 of the HT-12E are the address pins. Using the address pins of the HT-12E, we can select different addresses for up to 256 receivers. The address is determined by setting pins 1-8 on the HT-12E to ground, or just leaving them open. The address selected on the HT-12E circuit must match the address selected on the HT-12D circuit (exactly), or the information will be ignored by the receiving circuit.
When the received addresses from the encoder matches the decoders, the Valid Transmission pin-17 of the HT-12D will go HIGH to indicate that a valid transmission has been received and the 4-bits of data are latched to the data output pins, 10-13. The transistor circuit shown in the schematic will use the VT, or valid transmission pin to light the LED. When the VT pin goes HIGH it turns on the 2N2222 transistor which in turn delivers power to the LED providing a visual indication of a valid transmission reception.
Controlling the Project with a Microcontroller
To receive information simply hook up the HT-12D output pins to the microcontroller. The VT, or valid transmission pin of the HT-12D could signal the microcontroller to grab the 4-bits of data from the data output pins. If you are using a microcontroller with interrupt capabilities, use the VT pin to cause a jump to an interrupt vector and process the received data.
The HT-12D data output pins will LATCH and remain in this state until another valid transmission is received. NOTE: You will notice that in both schematics each of the Holtek chips have resistors attached to pins 15 and 16. These resistors must be the exact values shown in the schematic. These resistors set the internal oscillators of the HT-12E/HT-12D. It is recommended that you choose a 1% resistor for each of these resistors to ensure the correct circuit oscillation.
You will need a few pieces of 22 gauge wire for the antennas on the RE-99 and TX-99. Both units come with full instructions for selecting the length of wire to use for each antenna. For a quarter wave antenna you will need 9.36 inches of 22 gauge wire for both the transmitter and receiver boards.
Range of Operation
The transistors and diodes can be substituted with any common equivalent type. These will normally depend on the types and capacities of the particular loads you want to control and should be selected accordingly for your intended application.
Remote Control Parts Available HERE
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